TURMERIC - our turmeric is not irradiation or steam treated to preserve the key components. COCONUT OIL - we use cold pressed and organic coconut oil. APPLE CIDER VINEGAR - the Apple Cider Vinegar we use, is complete with the mother. BLACK PEPPER - we crack our black pepper just before adding it to our paste. CEYLON CINNAMON - we use true (ceylon) cinnamon as this has a lower level of coumarin in. Supports joint health, aids digestion, promotes general health and well being.